Literature Review Women on boards and in TMTS and firm performance 19 versity of the workforce enhances organizational effectiveness The authors report on the findings of their multiannual collaborative industry uni versity research project They express their disen chantment in view of the fact that only four out of originally 20 Fortune 500 companies were willing to cooperate Although not representative due to the small sample quantitative results for the four companies are similar Effects proven by earlier studies could not be confirmed there is neither a significant positive impact of gender and racial diversity on performance nor a significant nega tive impact of diversity on group processes With regard to the general lack of direct effects of di versity on performance it is presumed that context is of great importance Kochan et al 2003 note that diversity may increase performance under certain conditions Thus one of several provided managerial implications is to focus on these spe cific conditions and modify the business case for diversity accordingly The request to adopt a more analytical approach is related to the call for diligent data collection to enable a thorough analysis of the link between diversity oriented HR activities and business performance Contrary to the arguments raised by the propo nents of diversity in business there is also eviden ce that diversity may adversely affect firm perfor mance Tsui Egan O Reilly 1992 show that the greater the differences on age gender or race the lower the individual s psychological and behavioral attachment to the organization Surprisingly the effects shown by Tsui and colleagues relating to difference in gender race are stronger for males whites than for females non whites The au thors provide as one possible explanation that fe males as well as non whites are used to be mino rities in organizational settings and have learned to cope with this difference whereas white men were traditionally part of gender race homogeneous groups where there was neither an opportunity nor a necessity to adapt to the presence of fema les or non whites within their work environment Tsui et al 1992 The need for a successful diversity management is undeniable in view of the above Integration of employees remains a priority task for companies Cox and Blake 1991 admit that women and minorities may increase companies costs due to higher absenteeism and turnover rates They stress that diversity needs to be managed by increasing awareness among team members of their cultural differences in order to realize performance benefits see also Kochan et al 2003 Although team heterogeneity is positively related to propensity to action and willingness for competi tion Hambrick Cho Chen 1996 homogeneous groups outperform heterogeneous groups because their communication processes are more efficient and thus improve decision making significantly Hambrick et al 1996 According to Hambrick et al 1996 the internal similarity of homogeneous team members their joint vocabulary and way of exchanging information create an advantage by in creasing the team s ability to understand the com petitor s move and to decide on an adequate coun termove These results are in accordance with the findings on intergroup relations from social psycho logy Cooperation is better and emotional conflicts are rarer in homogeneous groups Tajfel Turner 1986 Communication patterns become stabilized and routinized within groups over time Wagner Pfeffer O Reilly 1984 and group members are familiar with these Patterns need to be changed if out group individuals enter the group at a later stage Furthermore frequent communication cre ates similarity among group members in terms of beliefs and perception of the organization Wagner Women on boards and in TMTs and firm performance

Vorschau DIRK-Forschungsreihe Band 21 Workforce diversity and personal policies Seite 19
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