Literature Review Women on boards and in TMTS and firm performance92 poses instead of feeding it into the grid However in yield terms the market for photovoltaics was clearly not an attractive option in the early nine ties The German government eventually recogni zed the opportunities offered by solar technolo gy and alternative renewable energy sources In 1999 it launched the successor program 100 000 roofs for the promotion of photovoltaics and la ter embedded it in the Renewable Energies Act Erneuerbare Energien Gesetz EEG aiming at supporting the expansion of the entire renewab le energies sector The 100 000 roofs program supported the installation of new PV plants by granting credits at reduced interest rates to private citizens freelancers and small and medium sized enterprises The Electricity Feeding Act was replaced by the Re newable Energies Act on April 1 2000 The act s purpose was to facilitate a sustainable develop ment of energy supply in the interest of mana ging global warming and protecting the environ ment and to achieve a substantial increase in the percentage contribution made by renewable energy sources to power supply in order at least to double the share of renewable energy sources in total energy consumption by 2010 in keeping with the objectives defined by the European Uni on and by the Federal Republic of Germany Re newable Energies Act 2000 Section 1 The law regulated the purchase of and remuneration for electricity generated exclusively from renewable energy sources by utility companies that operate grids for public power supply Geothermal energy was additionally incorporated in the group of pro moted renewable energies Grid operators were obliged to connect renewable energy systems to their grid and to purchase the generated electrici ty as a priority at fixed prices for a period of 20 ye ars after grid connection Prices varied substantial ly according to the differing electricity production costs and also depended on the individual system size Renewable Energies Act 2000 Section 4 to 8 Except for water and gas the act provided for a varying yearly degression of minimum remune ration with the objective to encourage a reduction of electricity production costs and an increase in efficiency over time11 The yearly degression was one percent for power from biomass and one and a half percent for wind power The stipulated de gression for photovoltaics was five percent being effective going forward as of January 1 each year The 100 000 roofs program ran out end of 2003 after the targeted 300 megawatts MW mark for newly installed PV power had been reached Fe deral Environment Ministry 2003 June 23 The government had fixed the upper limit for the pro motion of PV plants at a total of 350 MWp Adding the 50 MWp installed power of the pioneer plants this limit was reached and promotion was due to expire at the end of the year The amendment of the Renewable Energies Act was delayed and ex pected during the course of the year 2004 In order to prevent a slump in the photovoltaics market the revised regulations for the promotion of solar power were brought forward to December 2003 Federal Environment Ministry 2003 Dec 30 The Photovoltaic Interim Act Photovoltaik Vorschalt gesetz maintained the highly attractive subsi dization rates for photovoltaics The government continued to award low interest loans for the in stallation of PV systems Furthermore continuous support was to be provided for research and de velopment total funding in 2003 EUR 27 million Federal Environment Ministry 2003 Dec 30 The complete Renewable Energies Act was amended as planned in mid 2004 11 Frondel et al 2010 argue that despite massive expenditures for the subsidy programs German renewable energy policy has failed to develop a sustainable and competitive economic sector and also to encourage cost reduction and increases in efficiency on the part of industry CEO optimism and overconfidence

Vorschau DIRK-Forschungsreihe Band 21 Workforce diversity and personal policies Seite 92
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